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Commonly known as Oak
Genus of about 530 species of deciduous, semi-evergreen or evergreen trees and shrubs in the beech family widely distributed in woodland and scrub in the northern hemisphere extending to tropical latitudes.
Because of land use changes and climate change many species are under acute threat. In the highlands of Mexico, Central America and the northern Andes forests have been cleared to make coffee plantations and cattle ranching. Pine forests are invading oak in the Indian Himalayas because of temperature rise.
In the UK, Phytopthora ramorum (so-called sudden oak death), a bacterium thought to cause acute oak decline and the oak processionary moth, which causes defoliation, are all modern threats.
Represented in the UK by 2 natives, Sessile or Durmast (Q. petraea), stalked leaves and unstalked acorns and English or Pedunculate (Q. robur) with very short stalks on leaves and long stalks on acorns.
Two other oaks commonly seen are the holm oak (Q. ilex), evergreen, and the Turkey oak (Q. cerris) which was introduced, mistakenly, as a source of good timber.
Evergreen - elliptic to oblong thick, leathery leaves 5-12cm (2-5in) long, 2.5-7.5 cm (1-3in) wide. New leaves are spiny-toothed, bright green above, nearly white beneath
Height - to 10m (33ft)
Spread - 8m (26ft)
Tree - very slow-growing small tree developing a broad crown with age. Dark grey bark cracking into rectangular scales
Hardy - average winter - Hardy through most of the UK apart from inland valleys, at altitude and central/northerly locations. May suffer foliage damage and stem dieback in harsh winters in cold gardens. Plant can withstand temperatures down to -10°C (14°F) - protect with mulch in severe winters
Full sun - requires a warm summer to do well
Additional Features - Good to know - a mulch of the leaves is said to repel slugs, though fresh leaves inhibit plant growth
Pests & Diseases - aphids, gall wasps, oak wilt, honey fungus, powdery mildew, bracket fungus
Place of origin - Himalayas
Hardiness - Frost hardy (down to -5) -
Soil Conditions - Fertile well drained soil
Tree Shape - Rounded to broadly spreading
- When is the right time to collect seeds?
- When are seeds actually ripe and ready for collection?
- Magnolia seed collection - Video Tip ondemand_video
- Cornus capitata seed collection - Video Tip ondemand_video
- How to plant a tree - Video Tip ondemand_video
- How to plant a tree
- Checking ties - Video Tip ondemand_video
- Restaking fallen young tree - Video Tip ondemand_video
- Fallen old tree - Video Tip ondemand_video
- Spring pruning - Video Tip ondemand_video
- Removing side shoots - Video Tip ondemand_video
- Deer protection - Video Tip ondemand_video
- Weed Spraying - Video Tip ondemand_video
- Tree Survey - Video Tip ondemand_video
to 10m (33ft)